Hailed as the "first lady of the civil rights movement," Rosa Parks was not the first African American to resist bus segregation when she refused to vacate her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus in 1955. She was, however, the first to follow through with a court challenge after her arrest. Her act of civil disobedience inspired the Montgomery bus boycott that lasted for over a year. Additionally, her case led to a 1956 federal decision that bus segregation was unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.
Following her death in 2005, Rosa Parks with the first woman to lie in honor in the U.S. Capital Rotunda.